Geographical features

In this relatively small geographical area space we encounter transformed (metamorphic), layered (deposited, sedimentary) and volcanic (eruptive, igneous) rocks different geological ages. Geologically related the neighboring territories in the west also have a composition Serbia and eastern Bosnia, which indicates unique genesis.

The alphabet belongs to the inner belt Dinaric mountains. Old Paleozoic rocks that are basically formed by creasing approximately 300 million years ago. The largest part Alphabet is built of Paleozoic rocks. Southeast of Ljubovija they are represented green shales, sandstones, limestones and other rocks. Paleozoic rocks similar composition are provided along the Drina, on northwest all the way to Mali Zvornik. Close by one third of this territory is built of Mesozoic walls. There are mostly Jurassic ones formations, then Triassic, and least Cretaceous. The rocks of the Lower Triassic, gathered in wrinkles, stretch in the form of a narrow belt in the Dinaric direction and cover Lipnik, Bodnjik, Sokolska planina and Tornička Bobija.

These are: conglomerates, serpentines and limestones. These the rocks are intersected by numerous cracks and are permeable. Limestones formed in the Cretaceous period occur in southeastern Alphabet. The biggest they are widespread in the Trešnjica basin. About 3 km northwest of Ljubovija the outflow of dacite (Krš) was exploited. The youngest quarterly deposits are located along the Drina and its larger tributaries. They are represented by rivers deposits of variable composition (gravel, sand, sludge…).